The India-China war , also known as the India-China border dispute, was a war between China and India in 1962. The disputed Himalaya border was a major excuse for the war, but other issues also played a role. After China's 1959 Tibetan uprising, when India sheltered the Dalai Lama, a series of violent incidents began on the India-China border. India kept its military check posts on the border with McMahon Line, which was in response to the forward policy, in the north of the eastern part of the Line of Actual Control, declared in 1959 by Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai.
The Chinese army launched a simultaneous attack across Ladakh and on McMahon Line on October 20, 1962. The Chinese army proved to be advanced on the Indian forces in both the front and captured Razang-l in Chushul in western region and Tawang in the east. The war ended when China announced its withdrawal from the disputed territory on November 20, 1962, as well as the ceasefire.
India China war is remarkable for the fight in harsh conditions. Most of the battles fought in this war 4250 meters (14,000 feet). This type of situation presented logistics and other logistic problems for both sides. India China war is also famous for both Chinese and Indian parties not to use the Navy or the Air Force.
There is a long border between China and India which spread across three sections through Nepal and Bhutan. This border is connected to the Himalayas, which extends to Burma and then to western Pakistan (modern Pakistan). There are many disputed areas located on this border. Aksai Chin area in the western end is the size of Switzerland. This area is situated between the Chinese autonomous region Xinjiang and Tibet (which China declared an autonomous region in 1965). The present Indian state Arunachal Pradesh (Old Name - North East Frontier Agency) is located between Burma and Bhutan on the eastern border. In 1962, Chinese soldiers had come in both of these areas.
Most of the battle took place in the high altitude. Aksai Chin area is a vast desert of salt flat situated at an altitude of about 5,000 meters above sea level, and Arunachal Pradesh is a mountainous area with many peaks over 7,000 meters high. According to military theory, an attacker generally needs a numerical superiority of the ratio of 3: 1 to the foot soldiers to succeed. This ratio should be very high in the mountainous battle because the geographical structure of the area helps the other side to defend. China was able to take advantage of the terrain and occupy the highest peak areas of the Chinese army. Both sides had to face difficulties in the military and other logistic work due to height and cold conditions, and many of the soldiers died of the freezing cold.
According to China's official military history, from this war, China achieved the goals of protecting the border of its western sector, as China retained the actual control of Aksai Chin. After the war, India abandoned the forward policy and the actual loco became real borders.
According to James Kelvin, even though China won a military victory but lost in the case of its international image. Western countries, especially America, already had doubts on Chinese attitudes, intentions and actions. These countries saw China's goals as world conquest and clearly believed that China was in the form of an attacker in the border war. To test the first nuclear weapon of China in October 1964 and to support Pakistan in the 1965India-Pak war, the American opinion of the communists' goals and objectives and the Chinese influence in whole of Pakistan is confirmed.
After the war, there was widespread changes in the Indian Army and the need to be ready for similar struggle in the future was felt. The war came under pressure from Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, who was seen as responsible for failing to anticipate Chinese attack on India. A huge wave of patriotism began to rise among the Indians and many memorials were built for the Indian soldiers who were martyred in the war. Surely, the main lesson that India has learned from war is the need to strengthen its own country and make a change from Nehru's "brotherhood" with foreign policy, with China. Due to the inability of the Chinese to invade the Chinese apprehension, Prime Minister Nehru faced harsh criticism from government officials for promoting peace-related relations with China. Indian President Radhakrishnan said that Nehru's government was unprepared and unprepared about preparations. Nehru acknowledged that Indians were living in the world of their understanding. Indian leaders spent considerable efforts on the removal of Krishna Menon from the Ministry of Defense rather than concentrating full focus on returning the invaders back. Krishna Menon's "good appointment" Because of the policies and overall the 1962 war was seen by Indians as a combination of a military defeat and a political disaster. Regardless of the available options, instead of American advice, India did not use the Air Force to repel the Chinese troops. The CIA (American Intelligence Agency) later said that neither the Chinese troops had enough fuel in Tibet at that time nor was it a lengthy runway that they were unable to use the air force effectively. Most Indians look at China and its soldiers with suspicion. Many Indian war started looking at India as a betrayal in the effort of establishing peace with China for a long time. "Hindi-Chinese brother, brother" (meaning "Indians and Chinese brothers" by Nehru ) The question has begun on the use of the word. This war ended Nehru's hopes that India and China could build a strong Asian pole, which would be a reaction to the growing influence of the super power of the Cold War faction.
The whole impediment of not being fully prepared for the army came on Defense Minister Menon, who resigned from his official position so that new ministers could promote India's military modernization. This war strengthened India's policy of supply of weapons through indigenous sources and self-reliance. After feeling the Indian Army's weakness, Pakistan started infiltration in Jammu and Kashmir which culminated in the second war with India in 1965. However, India had formed the Henderson-Brooks-Bhagat report for the reasons for India's incomplete preparation in the war. The result was inconclusive, because different sources were split on the victory decision. Some sources argue that since India had occupied more territory than Pakistan, India clearly won. But, others argued that India had suffered significant losses and therefore, the outcome of the war was inconclusive. Two years later, in 1967, There was a small border skirmish between the Chinese and Indian soldiers in the form of a Chola incident. In this incident eight Chinese soldiers and 4 Indian soldiers died.
To know the reasons for the defeat, the Indian government took immediate action after the war. General Henderson Brooks and the then Indian Commandant of the Indian Military Academy, led a team under the leadership of Brig PS Bhagat. The Government of India still considers it a secret report to the report submitted by both the military authorities. Both the officials blamed Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru for their defeat in the report.
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