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India -Pakisthan War 1971

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TheIndia-Pak war of 1971 was a military conflict between India and Pakistan. It started from December 3, 1971 on December 16, 1971 due to the independence of East Pakistan, and Dhaka was concluded with dedication. The war started by Pakistan with preemptive air strikes at 11 stations of the IAF, resulting in the Indian army jumping in support of Bengali nationalist groups in the Bangladeshi Freedom Struggle in East Pakistan. The 13-day war, which was one of the shortest recorded battles in history, 

During the war, the Indian and Pakistani forces faced the same front and both the East and West frontiers, and till then the Pakistani Eastern Command did not sign the surrender record in Dhaka on December 16, 1971, along with East Pakistan Has been declared a new nation Bangladesh Approximately ~ 90,000 to 93,000 Pakistani soldiers were made prisoners of war by the Indian Army. These were the uniformed soldiers of Pakistani Armed Forces from 7,9, 676 to 9, 1,000, including some Bengali soldiers who were loyal to Pakistan.The special 10,324 to 15,000 prisoners of war were citizens who were either military personnel or Pakistan Were associates (rajkar). According to an estimate, about 30,000 to 3 lakh Bangladeshi nationals were killed in this war. Due to this conflict, around 80,000 people from around 80,000 people entered the neighboring country as refugees.


Background

The liberation struggle on the right to rule between the influential Bengali people established in East Pakistan and the majority of Pakistanis settled in four provinces of Pakistan, did the work of spark in theIndia-Pakistani war. The political tension was going on since the creation of Pakistan, due to the independence of India by the Joint Monarchy in 1947 between the people of Pakistan (Western) and East Pakistan, which was increasing with time. Among the main factors which led to this, the famous language movement of 1950, large riots in the east of 1964, and finally there were huge protests in 1969. As a result of this, Pakistan President Ayub Khan had to resign from his post and the army chief General Yahya Khan had to be invited to take over the central government of Pakistan. The geographical distance of East and West Pakistan was also high, about ~ 1,000-mile (1,600 km),

A disputed Forest Unit program was launched to suppress the Bengali influence and to give them the right to share in the central government of Islamabad, under which East and West Pakistan was established, but this effort was strongly opposed by the local Westerners. , And due to this it became impossible for the two factions of the government to go together. In 1965, the then President Yahya Khan announced the first general elections, postponement of the status of Western Pakistan in 1970, to restore it to its original origins in the four provinces created during the establishment of Pakistan in 1947. At the same time, religious and racial disputes arose between the Bengali and multi-ethnic Pakistanis, because the Bengali people were very different from those influential Western Pakistanis.

In the general elections held in 1970, the Awami League of East-Pakistan got 167 out of 169 seats in the East Pakistan Legislative Assembly, which resulted in it getting almost absolute majority in the 313-seat National Assembly, while West Pakistan's vote-bank Conservative Pakistan Muslim League And socialist Pakistan People's Party, and then-communist, divided into the Awami National Party. Awami league leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, while emphasizing his political situation, gave a solution to this constitutional crisis through a six-point program and strongly supported the rights of Bengalis to rule the state. Because of the election victory of the Awami League, many Pakistanis feared that Bengalis did not turn the Constitution towards these six-point program in such a way.

Ahsan-Yakub mission was formed for referrals and solutions to overcome this crisis, and its recommendations and reports were in line with the Awami League, the Pakistan People's Party and the Pakistan Muslim League, as well as President Yahya Khan.

Although this mission did not get the support of many components of the National Security Council, and as a result, it was vetoed by refusing to give support to the PPP president, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto's veto and giving Pakistan's Premiership to Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. On giving, the Awami League announced that the nationwide general strike was announced. President Yahya Khan postponed the assembly of the National Assembly, which disillusioned the Awami League and its supporters of East Pakistan. In response to this, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman declared a general strike, due to which the government was in captivity, as well as in the east, the group of dissidents started their non-violent reaction to the Bihari ethnic groups, The groups which supported Pakistan. In the beginning of March 1971, only 300 Biharis were killed by the violent mob of the Bengalis in Chittagong. The Pakistan government deployed the army under Operation Searchlight on March 25 after a few days in East Pakistan, on the pretext of this "Bihari killings". President Yahya Khan then asked the East Pak Army Chief Lieutenant General.Sahabzada Yakub Khan to resign from the former dissidents after seeking resignation Given the extended and army which had an abundance of western Pakistani soldiers.

A crowd of dissident crowds was arrested and after several days of strike and non-cooperation movement, Pakistani army under Tikka Khan took control over Dhaka on the night of 25 March 1971. The Awami league was declared illegal by the government. Many members and sympathizers had to take refuge in parts of Eastern India. Mujib was taken to Pakistan on 25/26 March 1971 at 01:30 am (according to news of 29 March 1971 on Radio Pakistan) at midnight. After this, Operation Searchlight action was taken and soon after the operation of Operation Barriss, the intent was to resolve the existing intellectual elite.

On March 26, 1971, Major Ziaur Rehman of Pakistan Army announced the independence of Bangladesh by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.

In April of that year, the leaders of the displaced Awami League formed the Provisional Government of Bangladesh at Baidyanathala in Meherpur. Then the East Pakistan Rifles, the Army, Air and Navy and the Bengali officers of Pakistan Marines also took their refuge as well as took shelter in fear of fear in different parts of India. The army of Bangladesh called Mukti Bahini and in which the Rasools Bahini and Gano Bahini were two main parts, were established under the leadership of retired Colonel Muhammad Ataul Gani Usmani.


Role of India in Bangladesh Liberation Conflict

After giving the resignation of Admiral Syed Muhammad Ehsaan and Lefti. Gen. Sahabzada Yakub Khan, in the news of the Naidi, the Pakistani army's large massacre of Bengali civilians, in which specially targeted minority Hindu communities, got bigger positions. As a result, the community had to flee to take shelter in the neighboring country of eastern India. The borders of eastern India were opened by the Indian government for the refugees. In order to provide shelter to these refugees, large number of refugee camps have also been set up by neighboring Indian state governments like West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Assam, Meghalaya and Tripura. Due to this rapidly fleeing East Pakistan refugee population entering India, India's first cumbersome economy had unbearable burden on the system.

After the war, the allegation of blaming each other for the atrocities committed against each other in the previous Pakistani army generals began on the other, but most of the blame was mounted on the heads of the Lt. General Tikka Khan, who would be the governor of East Pakistan Was to raise the maximum responsibility. It was given the nouns such as butcher of Bengal, etc. Because most of the atrocities were under his leadership. Tikka Khan, his contemporary Sahabzada Yakub Khan, who was relatively peaceful and had little confidence in the use of force, was used to force the use of force to settle the disputes.

In his confessional statement to the war inquiry commission, Lt. Gen. Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi commented on his activities and wrote: "Tikka Khan invaded the night between 25/26 March 1971. Then he was peaceful Night Ekalipa, shouting and arson turned into a night full. Jan.Tikka did not leave any kind of attack on her behalf, as if she was attacking an enemy , Not from its own misconceptions and misguided people.The military action was full of cruelty and cruelty, which was far more than the cruel massacre in Baghara and Baghdad by Genghis Khan and Halaku Khan in the merciless ... General Tikka Murdered and heated land policy adopted: His orders for his troops were: I want land, not man ... ". Maj Gen Rao Farhan Ali has written in his daily diary: The blood of Eastern Pakistan will make blood land. However, Rao Dharman strongly opposed the remark and put all the liability on Tikka Khan in the acceptance of the war inquiry committee of 1974. 

But even though Indian Foreign Minister Svarna Singh did not receive any positive feedback despite meeting the Foreign Ministers of different countries, the then Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi said on 27 March 1971 giving full support to her government for the liberation struggle of East Pakistan. That is far better than providing shelter to millions of refugees in India that war against Pakistan Do this struggle to be stopped. On April 28, 1971, the Indira Gandhi Cabinet ordered Indian Chief of the Army Staff Sam Manekshaw to travel to East Pakistan. Officers who were separated from the Eastern Pakistani Army and the components of Indian Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) were immediately commissioned from Indian refugee camps for training and recruitment against Muktibahini for guerrillas.1771, In the past, a strong wave of India-backed Bangladeshi nationalism was spread. After this the situation became non-violent and systematically started the killing of multi-ethnic Pakistanis who were living in the East. According to the FINANCIAL TERRORISM REPORTER JUSSI HONHAMACHI, the former Bengali insurgency gave some "one forgot", according to the bomb blast in the vehicle of Pakistani nationalist Bengali politicians and targets and killing of high posts in the government secretariat. It was like the history of terrorism. "The Rehman Commission, in support of the claims of Bengali militancy, wrote The miscreant from the multi-ethnic Pakistanis, raised the Pakistani soldiers to non-violence, that they could be able to follow the orders of the government by taking revenge of their people.

The mood of the Pakistani media was also becoming increasingly changing militant against war-loving and East Pakistan and India. Although some Pakistani media scholars were also giving a rapport of the activities of these past activities, they would also see mixed. By the end of September 1971, an organized campaign was started with the support of the internal elements of the Pakistan government, resulting in the stickers carrying crush Indiamessages being put behind the vehicles. These campaigns started from Rawalpindi, Islamabad and Lahore shortly after spreading across West Pakistan. By the end of October, other stickers include Hang the Traiter(Let the traitors be hanged) also in the context of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. By the end of December, some orthodox print media began to print the text of "Jihad", which encouraged recruitment process in the army.


India's official confrontation with Pakistan

By the end of April 1971, Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi had discussed the preparation of war against India from Pakistan's Indian Army Chief Sam Manekshaw. According to the personal records of Sam Manekshaw, he had expressed inability to present this war for two reasons: One was the time of the arrival of the monsoon in East Pakistan region, the revival of the second army tanks was in progress. He also submitted his resignation due to this inability, which Gandhi refused. Yes, he assured Gandhi of victory in such a war that if he was allowed to invade them on their terms and conditions and a date should be ensured; Whom Gandhi believed Actually, Indira Gandhi was aware of the consequences of the military action taken in haste, but she wanted to know the ideas of her army, so that she could answer many sharp colleagues in her ministry,

In view of the circumstances till November 1, 1971, war was inevitable, about which the Soviet Union had warned Pakistan. This warning was called the suicide road for Pakistan's unity and integrity at that time. Throughout the month of November 1971 thousands of people, persecuted by Pakistani conservative and inanistic politicians, crushed India in Lahore and other Pakistani cities(Let India crush) March. In response to this, India started forming the Indian Army at large level on its western borders, but they waited till December till the end, due to which the lands of the monsoon after the rainy season became dry and went to the aid for the campaign and the snow in the Himalayas. The movement is blocked and the route to enter China in the middle is not accessible. On November 23, Pakistani President Yahya Khan announced an emergency in Pakistan and called upon his people to be prepared for war.

At about 05:40 p.m. on December 3, Pakistan Air Force (PAF) carried an unprecedented pre-vacant attack on the 11 Air Base Bases of North-Western India, including Agra, 300-miles (480 km) away from theIndia-Pak border. At the time of this attack, the world-famous Taj Mahal was surrounded by garbage cloth covered with grasses and leaves, vines and vines, because its white marble night moonlight was a white guide. The light was shining.

The pre-emptive attacks, which were also called Operation Changze Khan, were inspired by the victory of Operation Focus in the Arab-Israeli Six-Day War of Israel, but in that war of 1967 a large number of Israeli fighters on the Arab Air Force base Airplanes were sent, while Pakistan sent less than 50 aircrafts to it.

That same evening, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi said in a message to the nation that this air attack is a war on India from Pakistan and that same evening the IAF also responded with the first airstrips. The next day, these counter-attacks were turned into big-scale air attacks.

At the same time, the official start of theIndia-Pak war of 1971, and Indira Gandhi ordered the army troops to cross the border and started attacking Pakistan at the whole level. Coordination in this campaign created air, sea and land From Pakistan all the fronts have been attacked. The main objective of this campaign of India was to control Dhaka on the eastern front and prevent Pakistan from entering the Indian land on the Western front.


Naval war situation

Unlike the last war of 1965, Pakistan was not ready for a naval encounter with India this time. With this fact, the top officials of the Pakistani Naval Headquarters were well aware that their navy is not ready at all and they will have to face badly this time. The Pakistani Navy was not ready for an aggressive war in the deep sea against the Indian Navy, nor was it able to provide sufficient security in front of the Indian encroachment of the Indian Navy.

On the western front of the war, under the leadership of Vice Admiral Surendra Nath Kohli, from the Western Naval Command of the Indian Navy, on the night of 4/5 December 1971, codenamed: Trishul, called the sudden attack on the Karachi harbor. PNS Khyber and Minesweeper PNS  Muhafiz , the Pakistani Navy's vandalized PNS  Shahjahan  (DD) was badly damaged by the Soviet-built Osa missile boats in these naval attacks, in  return, Pakistani Naval submarines, PNS  Hangar  , Mangro and Shushuk, Started the search for Indian battleships. According to Pakistani Naval sources, approximately 720 naval casualties were either missing or missing, Pakistan's fuel reserves and many commercial ships were destroyed, due to which the Pakistani Navy's war or war Staying in it has become more difficult now. On December 9, 1971, Hangar   submerged INS  Khukri , in which 194 Indian casualties; And this incident was the first submarine attack after World War II.

Immediately after the attack of INS Khukari , on the night of December 8/9 , another major attack was on the Karachi port which was named after the codename: Python . Indian Navy's Osa Missile Boats reached the Karachi port and hit the Stoics missile from Soviet, which resulted in large fuel tanks being damaged and damaged three Pakistani merchant fleets and one standing foreign vessel, Pakistani Air Force had any Indian They did not attack the naval battleship and they remained suspicious till the next day, due to which Pak Stan International Airlines reconnaissance war civilian pilots employed to pilot his own PNS  Zulfiqar  attacked in confusion (265) of the Indian ship that the ship suffered severe damage as well as many employed naval officers were casualties.

On the eastern front of the war, the Eastern Naval Command of India, under the leadership of Vice Admiral Nilakanta Krishnan, made Eastern Pakistan completely isolated from West Pakistan by creating a naval barrier in the Bay of Bengal. From this, the Eastern Pakistani Navy and eight foreign trade ships were also stuck there. The aircraft carrier INS Vikrant was deployed from 4th December  and its Sea Hawk fighter bombers attacked many coastal cities and towns of East Pakistan, including Chittagong and Cox market. Pakistan took PNS  GhaziSent to, was dispatched to Vishakhapatnam only on the way in suspicious circumstances. Due to many parts of the army, the Navy rely on Rear Admiral Lezley Mutagwin, and the Pakistan Army Marine warfare against the Indian Army (Rev. Warfire), but there was a surprisingly severe loss in them. The main reason for them was the lack of experience of Bangladesh's humid land and ignorance about the campaign war.

In the loss suffered by the Pakistan Navy, 7 gunnas, 1 Minesweeper, 1 submarine, 2 assassins, 3 patrol carrier boats, 3 patrol vessels of Coast Guard, 18 carrier, supply and communication vessel, naval bases on Karachi harbor and large-scale on docks Had losses The coastal city Karachi also suffered a lot. Three Marchent Navy ships - Anwar Baksh , Pasni and Madhumati A  and ten small ships were also caught, about 1900 naval missiles were found, while 1413 people were caught by the Indian Army in Dhaka. According to Tariq Klei, a Pakistani scientist, Pakistan suffered a complete loss of its Pakistan Marines and almost half of the Naval war came in handy.


Air attack

Now Pakistan has taken a defensive stance after the mouth-feeding of the attacks in the stolen attacks and after the loss of Indian attacks as a result of which the Indian Air Force, like the war, fought hard against the Pakistani air force on every fronts. And now the attacks by Pakistan were decreasing day by day. The IAF filled more than 4000 flights, while the Pak Air Force took its counter-action, partly due to which the non-Bengali technical people had a very low feat.

Likewise, responsible for retreating in the war, the decision to reduce its losses of Pak Air Headquarters is also being repeated; Because Bangladesh had also incurred heavy losses during the liberation struggle. After the Indian Air Force carried heavy losses to the Karachi harbor two times, the Indian Navy almost closed the connection, but Pak Air Force in turn replaced it with the Okha port Attacked and destroyed the fuel reserves which used to supply Pak-attacking boats etc.

In the past, no one was led by Swadron Tale Choppers who was led by the squadron leader Pervez Mehndi Qureshi, who was taken prisoner of war, he was destroyed and corrupted. After this, India's right has been proved before the end of Pakistan's Pak air security.

By the end of the war, Pakistan air force pilot escaped to neighboring Burma from East Pakistan, and many Pak air force had already migrated to Burma before being officially authorized by Dhaka.


Indian attack on Pakistan

The Indian Air Force continued its attack on Pakistan even after the hold on East Pakistan was strong). Now this campaign, the range of attacks coming near near-aircraft guns, radar-piercing aircraft and fighter jets, and nightly attacks on airfields, airplanes, airbases and Pakistani B-57 and C-130 and Indian Canberra And AN-12 was changing in the series of conflicts.

Pak Air Force started deploying F-6 for the internal security and defensive patrol of its air bases, but due to lack of preferential air superiority, he was unable to carry out effective offensive operations, so his invasions were mostly ineffective. Indian Air Force destroyed a United States Air Force and a United Nations aircraft in Dakha, and the private carrier of the State State Military, standing with the DHC-4 Caribou of Royal Canada Air Force in Islamabad, Brigadier Gen. Blown both the U-8 between the state Air Force. Even after this, the Indian Air Force continued the spat raid-like attacks on Pakistan air force at their airports in Pakistan by the end of the war. Among them, the Army's complete intervention and cooperation were made.

Pakistani Air Force participated in this campaign very limited, in cooperation with F-104 from Jordan, an unknown ally of the Middle East (till now) and the F-86 aircraft flew from Miraj planes and Saudi Arabia. With the arrival of the Pakistani Air Force, the efficacy and losses could not completely cover the curtain. The Libyan F-5 planes were possibly deployed on a Sargodha base as a potential training unit that could train Pakistani aircrafts to travel to Saudi Arabia and F5 aircraft. Bhavan: The army continued to carry out various types of work, such as providing assistance to soldiers; Air combat, deep penetration attacks, para-droping near enemy targets; The task of taking away the enemy fighters, bombing and reconnaissance with the actual goal. Compared to this, the Pak Air Force, which was focused only on air strikes, Until the first week of war, the continental sky had become extinct. Any Pak army who had survived the plane, either took refuge in the Iranian airbase or hid in the concrete bunkers and pulled it with a further attack.

The invasion of war officially on 15 December after the claim of authority on Dhaka and a large degree of rights on Pakistan's land of India (although the post-war borders were established) on 17 December 1971 at 14:30 (UTC) At the end, the eastern part of Pakistan was closed after the declaration of independence as Bangladesh. India has completed 1, 9 78 flights and 4,000 in Pakistan in the west; While Pakistan almost 30 in the east and 2,840 on the western front More than 80% of Indian Air Force flights, including Puri and under the control of the chawki, and about 45 aircraft disappeared.

Pak lost 45 aircrafts, which did not count F-6, Mirage 3, or 6 Jordanians F-104, which could never reach their donors. The reason for such large level of imbalance in the loss of the flights can be said due to emphasis on the significant flight rate of the IBA. 8,000 Pak soldiers died and 25,000 injured on land fronts, while 3,000 Indian soldiers died and 12,000 injured. The loss of armed vehicles was similarly unbalanced, and this is why the heavy defeat of Pakistan is finally judged.


Land attack

The pre-war Indian armies were organized in a very streamlined manner on both fronts and their quantity was much more than the Pakistan Army. Extraordinary warfare demonstrations in the Indian Army's war, with their China, lost prestige, self-confidence and dignity back at the time of war Was returned

Shortly after the start of their mutual encounter, India and its Bengali rebel colleagues had taken a decisive turn in favor. On both fronts, Pakistan repeatedly attacked the land, but both the courage and the land were defeated by the Indians before both the Indian Army's smooth operations. Large scale land attack by Pakistan, Pakistan Marines on the Western Front (On the southern border), but the Indian armies succeeded at large levels in entering and entering the land of Pakistan and soon And nearly 5,795-square-mile (15,010 km) at the beginning taken under Pakistani soil which independent sectors of Kashmir, Punjab and Sindh, But later, they were returned as goodwill in the Shimla accord of 1972. The number of casualties in Pakistan's first corp and second corp was quite large. The reason for the loss of many soldiers in it was the lack of operational planning and coordination of the Army's internal structure only in the attacks against the Indian Army's Southern and Western Command. At the end of the war, soldiers and soldiers of Pak army were very discouraged emotionally and psychologically on the western front and now there was no excitement to face the growing Indian army. The War Investigation Committee later also highlighted the fact that there was an urgent need for adequate arms and training for the troops of Pakistan at each level and at each command level. On the western front, the soldiers and soldiers of the Pak army were very discouraged emotionally and psychologically and now there was no excitement for them to face the growing Indian army. The War Investigation Committee later also highlighted the fact that there was an urgent need for adequate arms and training for the troops of Pakistan at each level and at each command level. On the western front, the soldiers and soldiers of the Pak army were very discouraged emotionally and psychologically and now there was no excitement for them to face the growing Indian army. The War Investigation Committee later also highlighted the fact that there was an urgent need for adequate arms and training for the troops of Pakistan at each level and at each command level.

On November 23, 1971, Indian forces completely entered the eastern front and entered the borders of East Pakistan and supported the Bengali nationalist struggling colleagues. Apart from the war of 1965, which progressed slowly, the strategy adopted at this time was fast, with the armored units and their assisted air strikes attached with nine infantry troops, Indian forces soon exposed the then capital of East Pakistan Dhaka. The Chief of the General Officers, Eastern Command, Eastern Command, Indian Army, Lt. Gen. Jagjit Singh Arora, East Pakistan And complete hard as invaded and smashed the Air Force attended the Pakistan Eastern Command accelerating small air parties in their support to the operation completely paralyzed Dhaka airspace. Meanwhile, the Indian Navy obstruct East Pakistan from the effective route on the sea route.


Blitzkrieg " in Indian campaigns"Techniques have been adopted, in which the weakness of the enemy's places occupied, they were quickly conquered while avoiding their resistance. After being inadmissible and in dire straits, Pakistani forces surrendered within a fortnight and the army officers of Eastern Command There was a fear and terror in the mind of the Indian Army. In the past, the advancement of the Indian Army stems from a psychological fear in Pakistanis, The communication dishearten Istani troops. Since then December 16 L 9 71 Indian troops cordoned off the Dhaka and finally hear the announcement that Antimethm present in the Antimettham to surrender in just 30 minutes,


Pakistan Eastern Command surrendered in East Pakistan

Officially, Eastern Command based East Pakistan by the Indian Eastern Command, Army Officer Commanding-in-Chief lieutenant-general [Jagjit Singh Arora]] and commander of Pak Eastern Command, Lahti Race Course between Niazi, Ramana Racecourse, Dhaka The surrender record was signed at 16:31 (Bhamas). Indian lecture .Aroda without signing a few sermons on the surrender record, there was a huge anti-Pakistan slogan in the racecourse and a large crowd surrounded by it, and according to the reports received, the abusement against the commanders of Pakistani military surrendered, Spoken in

On surrender, the Indian Army made more than 90,000 Pak soldiers and their Bengali assistants into a war ceasefire. This was the world's largest surrender since World War II. According to the initial statements, there were 79,6276 soldiers, 55, 9 9 were soldiers of Pakistan army, 16,354 paramilitary forces, 5,2 9 6 police, 1,000 naval and 800 Pak air soldiers.

Apart from them the remaining prisoners were ordinary citizens who were either close to these soldiers or their assistant (Razakar). According to the Report of Hamoodur Rehman Commission and War Criminal Investigation Commission, in the lists of warlords handed down by Pakistan: 15,000 Bengali citizens were also made war prisoners besides the soldiers.



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